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Course # 56562 • Alcohol and Alcohol Use Disorders


No substance, legal or illegal, has a more paradoxical mythology than alcohol. It is undeniably one of the most widely and safely used intoxicants in the world; however, it is also potent and dangerous, both from a psychologic and physiologic viewpoint. Alcohol is currently responsible for more deaths and personal destruction than any other known substance of abuse, with the exception of tobacco. All of this is known with scientific certainty. Alcohol is legal, easily obtained, and supported by a multi-billion-dollar worldwide industry. Alcohol consumption reduces social inhibitions and produces pleasure and a sense of well-being. It also can have some rather impressive positive medical effects, such as a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This course will include core competencies related to alcohol use and abuse as well as knowledge, assessment, and treatment-based competencies.

Education Category: Psychiatric / Mental Health

Release Date: 06/01/2018

Expiration Date: 05/31/2021


This course is designed for all dental professionals involved in the treatment or care of patients who consume alcohol.


NetCE is designated as an Approved PACE Program Provider by the Academy of General Dentistry. The formal continuing education programs of this program provider are accepted by the AGD for Fellowship/Mastership, and membership maintenance credit. Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial board of dentistry or AGD endorsement. The current term of approval extends from 10/1/2015 to 9/30/2021. Provider ID 217994. AGD Subject Code 157. NetCE is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education by the Florida Board of Dentistry, Provider #50-2405. NetCE is a Registered Provider with the Dental Board of California. Provider Number RP3841. Completion of this course does not constitute authorization for the attendee to perform any services that he or she is not legally authorized to perform based on his or her license or permit type.

Designations of Credit

NetCE designates this activity for 10 continuing education credits. This course meets the Dental Board of California's requirements for 10 unit(s) of continuing education. Dental Board of California course #10-3841-19244.

Course Objective

The purpose of this course is to address the ongoing alcohol competency educational needs of practicing dental professionals. The material will include core competencies as well as knowledge, assessment, and treatment-based competencies.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:

  1. Review facts about the history, costs, and prevalence of alcohol use and abuse.
  2. Define moderate drinking and take a history of alcohol use as defined by the standard drink equivalency.
  3. Identify benefits reported in the literature for moderate alcohol consumption.
  4. Distinguish between genetic and environmental risk and protective factors for developing alcohol problems.
  5. Describe clinical characteristics of alcohol use disorder, intoxication, and withdrawal.
  6. List complications associated with alcohol use disorders.
  7. Recognize mental problems associated with alcohol use disorders.
  8. Discuss screening instruments for detecting alcohol use disorders, including considerations for non-English-proficient patients.
  9. Explain brief intervention efficacy and techniques.
  10. Describe and evaluate treatment modalities.


Mark S. Gold, MD, DFASAM, DLFAPA, is a translational researcher, author, and inventor best known for his work on the brain systems underlying the effects of opiate drugs, cocaine, and food. He has published more than 1,000 peer-reviewed scientific articles, texts, and practice guidelines, including citation classics in cocaine neurobiology, opioid addiction neurobiology and treatment, and food and process addictions. He has been called a groundbreaking researcher, father of medication-assisted recovery, the first to translate rat experiments into theory and treatments for human addicts, and mentor of the next generation of addiction researchers and clinicians.

After working on state dependency of memory, amphetamines, and sleep neurobiology, Dr. Gold proposed a novel model for opiate action, dependence, and withdrawal, changing the way opiate action was understood. This locus coeruleus theory of opiate and drug withdrawal is a mainstay of theory and practice today, even though he proposed it in 1978. Dr. Gold is the senior author on the discovery paper and was awarded a patent for the discovery of new uses for clonidine, which remains widely used for opiate withdrawal and pain management. Drs. Gold and Herbert Kleber were the first to suggest the use of clonidine and naloxone in rapid detoxification and sequential use of clonidine and naltrexone.

During the 1980s, Drs. Gold and Dackis developed a new theory for cocaine action, dependence, and withdrawal based on an understanding of the neuroscience of dopamine-rich areas of the brain. While most at the time did not consider cocaine addictive because of the lack of a classic withdrawal syndrome, Dr. Gold proposed a dopamine theory of pathologic attachment, loss of control, and addiction. This work not only helped to reclassify cocaine as addicting but reduced the importance of withdrawal to the nosology of addiction. Dr. Gold had many of the first reports related to cocaine and crack, including pieces on cocaine and panic disorders, cocaine and cardiovascular accidents and symptoms, and cocaine and body temperature, and was the first to describe crack smoking. His work increased interest in dopamine in pleasure and addictions. Dr. Gold completed a five-year State Department study on opium smoking and second- and thirdhand exposure in the children of Afghanistan. His work reduced stigma, served as the basis for many educational and prevention campaigns, and changed the lives of addicts with basic and applied science leading to new evidence-based treatment.

Dr. Gold is a Distinguished Alumnus of Washington University, the University of Florida, and Yale University. He was a Professor, Eminent Scholar, Distinguished Professor, and Distinguished Alumni Professor during his 25 years at the University of Florida and one of the Directors of the McKnight Brain Institute. He has served as a Consultant to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the State Department, and other governmental agencies, professional sports associations, and the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. He gave a keynote at the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America Conference in Washington, DC, in 2016.

He is currently an (Adjunct) Professor of Psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis, MO, and the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Boards for RiverMend Health, a national provider of addiction, eating disorders, and obesity evaluation and treatment. Dr. Gold has been awarded a number of national awards for his research, including the Foundations Fund Prize (from the American Psychological Association), the McGovern Award for Lifetime Achievement (from the American Society of Addiction Medicine and the American Board of Addiction Medicine), the National Leadership Award (from the National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers), the Silver Anvil (from the Public Relations Society of America), PRIDE and DARE awards for his career in research and prevention, and the PATH Foundation’s Lifetime Achievement Award, presented by White House Drug Czar Michael Botticelli, Yale Chairman of Psychiatry John Krystal, MD, and David Baron, DO, MSEd, vice chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Southern California.

William S. Jacobs, MD, William S. Jacobs, MD, is a national clinical expert, triple board certified in Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine, and Addiction Medicine. A Phi Beta Kappa, magna cum laude University of Georgia undergraduate and graduate of the Medical College of Georgia, Dr. Jacobs did his anesthesiology residency at the University of Alabama-Birmingham, where he won the Dripps Award for the Best Anesthesiology Resident. He had a 13-year career as a private practitioner in anesthesiology and pain management before matriculating to the University of Florida for his addiction medicine fellowship. Dr. Jacobs has been a national expert, testifying on Capitol Hill on MDMA and prescription misuse and abuse. He has also served the State of Florida and its Drug Czars. He was a medical and scientific consultant to the U.S. Senate Crime and Drugs Subcommittee as well as the Department of Labor. Dr. Jacobs has testified and consulted for the DEA on safe prescribing of narcotic drugs and the model of ideal treatment programs. A gifted clinician and addiction medical director, Dr. Jacobs has been the medical director of nonprofit, profit, and academic chemical dependency and dual-diagnosis detoxification and stabilization, residential, partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient, and hospital programs. Over his career, he has served as attending physician, Chief Medical Officer, or Medical Director at a variety of facilities. He has been a monitoring physician for the Florida Board of Medicine and an evaluator and treatment provider for Florida Professionals Resource Network, Intervention Project for Nurses, and Lawyers Assistance programs. He has worked with the Duval County Adult and Adolescent Drug Courts and is a member of the Drug Free America Foundation Board of Directors. After his promotion to Associate Professor, he left academia and started NexStep Integrated Pain Care, Inc., a model outpatient program for the treatment of patients with both chronic pain and addiction disorders in Jacksonville. He returned to the University of Florida full time as Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine and was co-chief of Pain Medicine in 2012. Dr. Jacobs was a principal or co-principal investigator for the Florida site of the pivotal trials for bupropion vs. placebo in smoking cessation as well as in pharmacological studies of naltrexone, depression, OCD, and anxiety. He is the author of peer-reviewed scientific papers, abstracts, textbook chapters (including the ASAM and APA definitive substance use volumes), and practice guidelines including highly cited studies on mitigating opioid abuse in chronic pain treatment, physician recovery, naltrexone, urine drug testing, and body mass index and alcohol use. Dr. Jacobs has returned to Georgia to become the first Chief of Addiction Medicine at The Medical College of Georgia/Georgia Regents University. He is also Medical Director of The Bluff Plantation as well as Chief Medical Officer for Georgia Detox & Recovery. He was recently invited to serve on the American Academy of Pain Medicine’s Acute Pain Initiative and made keynote presentation at the 2014 Addiction Research & Therapy Conference on Pain and Addiction.

Faculty Disclosure

Contributing faculty, Mark S. Gold, MD, DFASAM, DLFAPA, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

Contributing faculty, William S. Jacobs, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

Division Planner

William E. Frey, DDS, MS, FICD

Division Planner Disclosure

The division planner has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

About the Sponsor

The purpose of NetCE is to provide challenging curricula to assist healthcare professionals to raise their levels of expertise while fulfilling their continuing education requirements, thereby improving the quality of healthcare.

Our contributing faculty members have taken care to ensure that the information and recommendations are accurate and compatible with the standards generally accepted at the time of publication. The publisher disclaims any liability, loss or damage incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents. Participants are cautioned about the potential risk of using limited knowledge when integrating new techniques into practice.

Disclosure Statement

It is the policy of NetCE not to accept commercial support. Furthermore, commercial interests are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.

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