Works Cited

1. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. Chest. 1992;101:1644-1655.

2. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS international sepsis definitions conference. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:530-538.

3. Lucas S. The autopsy of pathology of sepsis-related death. In: Fernandez R (ed). Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: Understanding a Serious Killer. Rijeka: InTech; 2012: 71-100.

4. Boka K. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

5. Cinel I, Opal SM. Molecular biology of inflammation and sepsis: a primer. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(1):291-304.

6. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis 3). JAMA. 2016;315(8):803-810.

7. Vincent JL, de Mendonça A, Cantraine F, et al. Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(11):1793-1800.

8. Tilney N, Bailey G, Morgan A. Sequential system failure after rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: an unsolved problem in postoperative care. Ann Surg. 1973;178:117-122.

9. Baue AE. Multiple, progressive or sequential systems failure: a syndrome of the 1970s. Arch Surg. 1975;110:779-781.

10. Goris RJA, te Boekhorst TPA, Nuytinck JKS, Gimbrere JSF. Multiple-organ failure: generalized autodestructive inflammation? Arch Surg. 1985;120(10):1109-1115.

11. Elixhauser A, Friedman B, Stranges E. Septicemia in U.S. Hospitals, 2009. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

12. Wang HE, Devereaux RS, Yealy DM, Safford MM, Howard G. National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study. Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:9.

13. Wang HE, Shapiro NI, Angus DC, Yealy DM. National estimates of severe sepsis in United States emergency departments. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(8):1928-1936.

14. Dhainaut JF, Shorr AF, Macias WL, et al. Dynamic evolution of coagulopathy in the first day of severe sepsis: relationship with mortality and organ failure. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(2):341-348.

15. Dombrovskiy VY, Martin AA, Jagadeeshan S, Paz HL. Rapid increase in hospitalization and mortality rates for severe sepsis in the United States: a trend analysis from 1993 to 2003. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5):1244-1250.

16. BMJ Group Clinical Evidence. Sepsis. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

17. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(16):1546-1554.

18. Vincent JL, Abraham E. The last 100 years of sepsis. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2006;173:256-263.

19. Bone RC. Gram-negative sepsis: a dilemma of modern medicine. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993;6(1):57-68.

20. Al-Khafaji AH. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Sepsis. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

21. Lamar CD, Hurley RA, Taber KH. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy: review of the neuropsychiatric manifestations and cognitive outcome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;23(3):237-241.

22. Melamed A, Sorvillo FJ. The burden of sepsis-associated mortality in the United States from 1999 to 2005: an analysis of multiple-cause-of-death data. Crit Care. 2009;13:R28.

23. Carcillo JA, Fields AI, et al. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(6):1365-1378.

24. Kali A. Septic Shock. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

25. Warner EA, Moldawer LL. Using innate immunity to characterize the host response to microbial invasion in severe sepsis. Future Microbiol. 2008;3(2):177-189.

26. Bone RC. Immunologic dissonance: a continuing evolution in our understanding of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(8):680-687.

27. Donowitz L, Wenzel R, Joyt J. High risk of hospital acquired infections in the ICU patient. Crit Care Med. 1982;10:355-357.

28. Brown RB, Hosmer D, Chen HC, et al. A comparison of infections in different ICUs within the same hospital. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(6):472-476.

29. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32(8):470-485.

30. Gollehon NS. Neonatal Sepsis. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

31. Pinilla JC, Ross DF, Martin T, Crump H. Study of the incidence of intravascular catheter infection and associated septicemia in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(1):21-25.

32. Maki DG, Botticelli JT, LeRoy ML, Thielke TS. Prospective study of replacing administration sets for intravenous therapy at 48- vs 72-hour intervals: 72 hours is safe and cost-effective. JAMA. 1987;258:1777-1781.

33. Kunin CM. Detection, Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infections. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1987.

34. de Jonge RCJ, Polderman KH, Gemke RJBJ. Central venous catheter use in the pediatric patient: mechanical and infectious complications. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6(3):329-339.

35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fatal bacterial infections associated with platelet transfusions—United States, 2004. MMWR. 2005;54(7):168-170.

36. Williams MD, Braun LA, Cooper LM, et al. Hospitalized cancer patients with severe sepsis: analysis of incidence, mortality, and associated costs of care. Crit Care. 2004;8(5):R291-R298.

37. Riedemann NC, Guo RF, Ward PA. Novel strategies for the treatment of sepsis. Nat Med. 2003;9(5):517-524.

38. Rubin E, Reisner HM (eds). Essentials of Rubin's Pathology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013.

39. Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Sepsis: a new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. Chest. 1997;112:235-243.

40. Cobb JP, Buchman TG, Karl IE, Hotchkiss RS. Molecular biology of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: injury, adaptation, and apoptosis. Surg Infect. 2000;1(3):207-213.

41. Reddy RC, Chen GH, Tekchandani PK, Standiford TJ. Sepsis-induced immunosuppression: from bad to worse. Immunol Res. 2001;24(3):273-287.

42. Cavaillon JM, Annane D. Compartmentalization of the inflammatory response in sepsis and SIRS. J Endotoxin Res. 2006;12(3): 151-170.

43. Proulx F, Joyal JS, Mariscalco MM, Leteurtre S, Leclerc F, Lacroix J. The pediatric multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(1):12-22.

44. Opal SM, Cohen J. Clinical gram-positive sepsis: does it fundamentally differ from gram-negative bacterial sepsis? Crit Care Med. 1999;27(8):1608-1616.

45. Moine P, Abraham E. Immunomodulation and sepsis: impact of the pathogen. Shock. 2004;22(4):297-308.

46. Feezor RJ, Oberholzer C, Baker HV, et al. Molecular characterization of the acute inflammatory response to infections with gram-negative versus gram-positive bacteria. Infect Immun. 2003;71(10):5803-5813.

47. Dettenmeier P, Swindell B, Stroud M, Arkins N, Howard A. Role of activated protein C in the pathophysiology of severe sepsis. Am J Crit Care. 2003;12(6):518-526.

48. Wheeler AP. Recent developments in the diagnosis and management of severe sepsis. Chest. 2007;132:1967-1976.

49. Cunha CB, Cunha BA (ed). Infectious Diseases in Critical Care Medicine. 4th ed. New York, NY: CRC Press; 2020.

50. Ely EW, Kleinpell RM, Goyette RE. Advances in the understanding of clinical manifestations and therapy of severe sepsis: an update for critical care nurses. Am J Crit Care. 2003;12:120-135.

51. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A, et al. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6(1):2-8.

52. Brierly J, Carillo JA, Choong K, et al. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(2):666-688.

53. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34(1):17-60.

54. Bone RC. Diagnosing sepsis: what we need to consider today. J Crit Illness. 1996;11:658-665.

55. Mammen EF. The haematological manifestations of sepsis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998;41(suppl A):17-24.

56. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, et al. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(9):1928-1948.

57. Silbiger PM, Grozinsky S, Soares-Weiser K. Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;1:CD003344.

58. Annane D, Bellissant E, Bollaert PE, Briegel J, Keh D, Kupfer Y. Corticosteroids for treating severe sepsis and septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;1:CD002243.

59. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Voluntary Market Withdrawal of Xigirs [Drotrecogin Alfa (Activated)] Due to Failure to Show a Survival Benefit. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

60. LexiComp Online. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

61. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Defeating Sepsis: 25 Percent by 2009. Available at Last accessed May 10, 2021.

62. Society of Critical Care Medicine. SSC Hour-1 Bundle. Available at Last accessed April 30, 2021.

63. Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(13):1283-1297.

64. Flower O, Finfer S. Glucose control in ciritcally ill patients. Int Med J. 2012;42(1):4-6.

65. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, et al.; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including the Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:165-228.

66. Hall MJ, Williams SN, DeFrances CJ, Golosinskiy A. Inpatient Care for Septicemia or Sepsis: A Challenge for Patients and Hospitals. NCHS Data Brief, No. 62. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2011.

67. Iwashyna TJ, Ely EW, Smith DM, Langa KM. Long-term cognitive impairment and functional disability among survivors of severe sepsis. JAMA. 2010;304(16):1787-1794.

68. Ferrer R, Artigas A, Levy MM, et al. Improvement in process of care and outcome after a multicenter severe sepsis education program. JAMA. 2008;299(19):2294-2303.

69. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood K, Light B, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(6):1589-1596.

70. De Backer D, Aldecoa C, Mjimi H, Vincent JL. Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:725-730.

71. Novosad SA, Sapiano MRP, Grigg C, et al. Epidemiology of sepsis: prevalence of health care factors and opportunities for prevention. MMWR. 2016;65(33);864-869.

72. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for managing sepsis and septic shock 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(3):304-377.

73. Annane D, Pastores SM, Rochwerg B, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in critically ill patients (Part I). Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017. Crit Care Med. 2017;45(12):2078-2088.

74. Gardner SL. Sepsis in the neonate. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2009;21:121-141.

75. Mathias B, Mira JC, Larson, SD. Pediatric sepsis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2016;28:380-387.

76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sepsis. Clinical Information. Available at Last accessed April 29, 2021.

77. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hospital Toolkit for Adult Sepsis Surveillance. Available at Last accessed April 30, 2021.

78. Rhee C, Dantes R, Epstein L, et al. Incidence and trends in US hospitals using clinical vs claims data, 2009–2014. JAMA. 2017;318:1241-1249.

79. Buchman TG, Simpson SQ, Sciarretta KL, et al. Sepsis among Medicare beneficiaries: the burden of sepsis, 2012–2018. Crit Care Med. 2020;48:276-288.

80. Rhee C, Wang R, Zhang Z, et al. Epidemiology of hospital-onset versus community-onset sepsis in U.S. hospitals and association with mortality: a retrospective analysis using electronic clinical data. Crit Care Med. 2019;47:1169-1176.

81. Liu VX, Escobar GJ, Chaudhary R, et al. Healthcare utilization and infection in the week prior to sepsis hospitalization. Crit Care Med. 2018:46:513-516.

82. Fay K, Sapiano MRP, Gokhale R, et al. Assessment of health care exposures in adult patients with sepsis and septic shock. JAMA. 2020;3(7):e206004.

83. Athazzani W, Evans L, Alshamsi F, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines on the management of adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the ICU: first update. Crit Care Med. 2021;49(3):e219-e234.

84. Fleischmann-Struzek C, Goldfarb DM, Schlattmann P, et al. The global burden of pediatric and neonatal sepsis: a systematic review. Lancet Resp Med. 2018;6:223-230.

85. Surviving Sepsis Campaign. International guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Ped Crit Care Med. 2020;21:e52-e106.

86. Society for Critical Care Medicine, Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Initial Resuscitation Algorithm for Children. Available at Last accessed April 30, 2021.

87. Prescott HC, Angus DC. Enhancing recovery from sepsis: a review. JAMA. 2018;319:62-78.

88. Seymour CW, Geston F, Prescott HC, et al. Time to treatment and mortality during mandated emergency care for sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2235-2244.

89. Marra A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, et al. The ABCDEF bundle in critical care. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33:225-243.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(3):304-377. Available at Last accessed May 17, 2021.

2. Alhazzani W, Evans LE, Alshamsi F, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines on the management of adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the ICU: first update. Crit Care Med. 2021;49(3):e219-e234. Available at Last accessed May 17, 2021.

Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2021 CE Resource, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.